What causes kidney stones?

what causes kidney stones

Poor diet, being overweight, supplements, medications and a number of other medical conditions can be among the many causes of kidney stones. Timely detection of the cause of kidney stones is an important key contributing to the successful treatment of this disease. Let’s explore what causes kidney stones in this article!

What causes kidney stones?

Many patients with this disease often wonder: “What is the most common cause of kidney stones?”. In fact, the cause of kidney stones is not exactly known, but only certain risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing the disease.

Kidney stones form when urine becomes concentrated, increasing the concentration of substances that can produce crystals, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. At the same time, the urine may lack a substance that prevents the crystals from sticking together, making them a favorable environment for crystallization and the formation of kidney stones.

Knowing the type of stone you have will help determine exactly what the cause of the kidney stone is and take the right approach to help reduce the risk of further kidney stones.

Calcium stones

Most kidney stones are calcium stones and are commonly found in the form of calcium oxalate. This is a substance that is made daily by the liver or absorbed from the diet. Consuming large amounts of certain oxalate-rich foods can increase the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. These include rhubarb, beets, okra, spinach, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate, black pepper, and soy products.

In addition, other factors in the diet, high doses of vitamin D, bowel bypass surgery, and certain metabolic disorders can increase urinary calcium or oxalate levels, contributing to stones. kidney.

Calcium stones can also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. These kidney stones are usually caused by metabolic conditions, such as tubular acidosis. Certain medications are used to treat migraines or seizures, such as topiramate.

Infected stones

These kidney stones form in response to a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and be quite large, sometimes with few symptoms and difficult to recognize.

Uric acid stones

Uric acid kidney stones are caused by excessive fluid loss caused by chronic diarrhea or malabsorption. Uric acid stones can also form in people who eat a high-protein diet, and who have diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors can also increase the risk of uric acid stones.

Cystine stones

This type of kidney stone is more common in people with a congenital defect in the renal tubules, which reduces the reabsorption of cystine. High levels of cystine facilitate the formation of cystine stones in the urine.

Other risk factors for kidney stones

Anyone can develop kidney stones, but some people have a higher risk of developing kidney stones than others. Factors that increase the risk of kidney stones include:

Your and your family’s medical history: If someone in your family has had kidney stones or has had them yourself, the odds are higher.

Loss of water: Not drinking enough water every day, people living in hot dry climates can increase the risk of kidney stones.

Unscientific diet: Eating a diet rich in animal protein, low in fiber, salty, and high in sugar may increase your risk of certain types of kidney stones. Especially eating salty foods, because too much salt will increase the amount of calcium that the kidneys have to filter and can be the cause of kidney stones.

Certain other medical conditions: This is because they can increase or decrease levels of substances that form kidney stones. May include increased calcium in the urine, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, gout, cystic fibrosis, kidney cysts, parathyroid disease, recurrent urinary tract infections, cysts urinary tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic diarrhea. People who are bedridden for a long time are also more prone to the recurrence of kidney stones than the general population.

Certain surgical procedures: These may include weight loss surgery or surgery to remove the stomach or intestines, which can cause changes in the digestive process, affecting the absorption of calcium and water, and increasing the amount of stone-forming substances in the urine.

Certain medications can increase the risk of stone formation: These medications include vitamin C, diuretics, laxatives (when used in excess), and calcium-based antacids (medications used). to treat osteoporosis) and some medicines used to treat migraines or depression.

In addition, after infection, prostate enlargement, or severe trauma, lying in one place also increases the risk of kidney stones.

Understand the causes of kidney stones to know how to prevent

After knowing the cause of kidney stones, you need to apply some of the following tips to effectively prevent this disease:

Drink plenty of water: Drink at least about 2 liters of water a day to help produce enough urine, removing the buildup of substances that can cause kidney stones. If you live in a hot, dry climate and exercise or sweat a lot, drink more water.

Do not hold urine: Holding urine for a long time is also a cause of kidney stones that need attention. Because this creates very favorable conditions for the crystals to deposit and form stones.

Eat less oxalate-rich foods.

Limit salt and animal protein: Reduce salt intake and choose healthy plant-based protein sources, such as legumes.

Lose weight: If you are overweight, try to lose weight with a healthy diet and regular exercise to maintain your ideal body shape and weight.

Take prescription medications: Your doctor may prescribe certain medications to help prevent kidney stones. The type of medication may depend on the type of stone you are at high risk for.

Be careful with calcium-rich foods: Calcium in food is not the cause of kidney stones, even some people who eat less calcium have a higher risk of kidney stones. If you have calcium oxalate stones, you should have a diet high in calcium and low in oxalate. Foods rich in calcium include cow’s milk, yogurt, cheese, broccoli, kale, salmon, cereals, etc. However, you may need to reduce calcium-rich foods when directed by your doctor.

Final thought

Top News hopes this article can help you understand the causes of kidney stones better as well as other risk factors for the disease and effective prevention.

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