Vaginitis affects many women’s lives and activities and leaves many sequelae and complications affecting fertility and long-term health problems. Vaginitis has many causes, the most common of which is bacterial vaginosis. Let’s find out bacterial vaginosis symptoms in this article!
Bacterial vaginosis is vaginitis caused by a complex alteration of the vaginal microbiome, in which lactobacilli decrease and anaerobic pathogens overgrow. Symptoms include a thin, grayish-green vaginal discharge with a fishy odor. Diagnosis is made by testing vaginal secretions. Treatment is usually with oral or topical metronidazole or topical clindamycin.
Bacterial vaginosis causes
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of the bacteria that normally reside in the vagina, most specifically the depletion of a type of “good” bacteria called lactobacilli. When this happens, other “bad” bacteria can take over and cause an infection. This imbalance can occur when:
- Vaginal douching or long-term vaginal suppositories
- Hormonal use (birth control pills, thyroid disease, corticosteroids)
- Long-term use of antibiotics
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Immunodeficiency, Immunodeficiency
- Having sex with multiple partners
- Congenital deficiency of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli)
- Poor hygiene or improper cleaning
- Weak resistance
What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
The most common vaginitis symptoms include:
- Grayish-white or yellow discharge usually covers the vaginal wall
- The “fishy” smell can often get worse after intercourse
- Burning sensation when urinating
- Vaginal itching, redness, and mild swelling
- Vaginal bleeding after intercourse
- Even after a woman has been successfully treated, up to 50% will relapse within a year
What is the cause of bacterial vaginosis?
An imbalance in the number of bacteria in the vagina is the main cause of bacterial vaginosis.
Normally, the good bacteria (lactobacilli) will overwhelm the bad bacteria (anaerobes) in the vagina. However, under the right conditions, the number of harmful bacteria can increase too much, disrupting the natural balance, and causing the number of beneficial bacteria to decrease, thereby leading to bacterial vaginosis.
How to prevent bacterial vaginosis?
To prevent bacterial vaginosis in particular and gynecological diseases in general, women need to:
Wash genital soap in the shower, and dry the area to avoid irritation. Do not use strong detergents.
When going to the toilet, remember to wipe from front to back. This is done to avoid spreading bacteria from the stool into the vagina.
Do not douche the vagina: The vagina does not need cleaning other than a normal bath. Repeated douching disrupts the organisms that normally reside in the vagina and can actually increase the risk of vaginal infections.
Use condoms when having sex
Choose cotton underwear, good absorption. Avoid nylon or lace materials that can cause tightness and irritation. Change your underwear often, especially if you have a lot of vaginal discharge. Underpants should be dried in the sun or hot ironed to kill bacteria.
Take metronidazole 500 mg 2 times/day for 7 days or 2 gams once
Metronidazole 0.75% gel 5 g (one full application) once a day for 7 days
Clindamycin 2% cream, applied once a day for 7 days
Oral metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 7 days is the treatment of choice for nonpregnant patients, but because oral therapy can affect the whole body, topical administration is more appropriate for pregnant. Women using clindamycin cream cannot use a latex product (eg condom or diaphragm) to prevent pregnancy because the medicine damages the latex.
Secnidazole 2 gam orally once is another option for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (1, 2). Since only one dose is required, secnidazole can improve patient compliance.
Treatment of asymptomatic sexual partners is not necessary.
For first-trimester vaginitis, metronidazole vaginal gel should be used, although treatment during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy. For the prevention of endometritis, clinicians may administer prophylactic metronidazole before an abortion to all patients or only to those who test positive for bacterial vaginosis.
When treated, symptomatic bacterial vaginosis usually resolves within a few days but often recurs. If recurrences are frequent, long-term antibiotics may be required.
Recognizing the symptoms and taking good care of yourself to prevent bacterial vaginosis, make sure you follow the instructions above to eliminate this disease effectively!
Top News hopes this article can help you learn more about ways to treat bacterial vaginosis effectively and wishes you all the best!
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